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commercial aristocracy, 42, A. in Ve-
nice, remarkable as increasing continu-
ally, 43 ; rise of Venice, 44, 45 ; tribunes
and classes of people, 45, 46; dukes, !
46, 47; could not become hereditary, [
ibid, ; office of doge, 48-50; methods !
of electing the doj;e, 49; hih limited)
power, 50; the grand council, 50-55 ; i
mode uf election, 51; the "closing" of
the council, 52-54 ; doge's council and
thepregadi, 55 ; the qiuramia, 50 ; the
tt'n, ibid. : the three inquisitors, 58. A,
in Florence, 60-95 I cai* F* he called an
aristocracy, 93-05. See Florence. A., its
origin, 95-97 ; it* not found in all nations
and rares, 97, 98 ; titles of nobility, 98 ;
efficiency of a noble class, 99. A, in a
republic, evils of, ,-VW, / Uriti.sli A. as
fitting into the polity, 100; dangers of'
privilege*! classes in the future, ico, !
101; municipal aristocracy, 201. j
AKNOU>, I>r» T., on institutions, ii. 353, -
354; on relation bntwren church and !
state, 487-493; opposed to Warburton's ;
theory anil agreeing in the main with j
Hooker's. The force and wisdom of a
state ought to be united, the church
should have power to raise its condi-
tion morally and pbysicully, 487; n<>
true distinction between physical and
secular things, no priestly order in
Christianity, 488; the state has or ought
to have a religion, ibid, ; its business i:>
not secular alone, ibid.; he considers
excommunication a penalty, 490; a
perfect church may punis.h opinion*,
ibid,; he would exclude non-Christians
from citizenship, 491; what he calls a
Christian state, 492; objections to his1
highly ideal view, 493.
ASSOCIATION', right of, #0-83; limitations
of, 82, 277 rt sfr/+; secret, 279.
ATHENS, under kings, J 161; tribes and
smaller divisions, 458, 460, 489, 490;
slow development of institutions at first,
ibid.; a democracy, ii. 1^3-138. Solon's
reforms, 123; democratic changes after
Solon, 125 ; the domi, ibid,; the lot,
; ostracism, 137 ; office open to all,
• democracy under IN'rieles, 128;
laws and p$ephhm*xht% ibid,; executive
power divided up, 129; dokimaste,
130; courts of justice, 130, 131; trials,
132 ; evils of the system of courts, 133;
pay to dikasts and in the ccclesia, 133,
1.54 ; i's effects, 134 ; liturgits and trier-
ArsriN, J., on rights, 128-130; remarks
by Mr. Stephen on his theory, 129; by
the author, 130; his definition of sover-
BABF.UV, his conspiracy, 317; his com-
UAGKHOT, W., on the English constitu-
tion, cited, 557 ; criticised, 559, 560.
IUin'libU'.MY-SAtNT-Hi LAI UK, his trans-
lation of Aristotle's politics cited, ii.
38, ami elsewhere*
Bfcrc'AUiA, Marquis, on penalties, 336,
HEHAWKKNS, their institutions, 452,
liKNTHAM ou liberty, 34; his rationale
of punishment noticed, 352-354.
HKTHMAN-HOI.LWKO cited, 126.
Ht,OfU)-Ki*.VKNOK, 39, 373. 438.
HriNAi.n on the state, 149.
BoNU-'AcnVIII., Pope, his claims against
HKoi»KirK, H(in. G. C., on choice of
municipal officers in England, ii, 382;
on " unions " taking the place of town-
lU'f iu:x, on ri^ht of property, 63; his
theory examined, 69, 70,
RntKK, his dislike of abstractions, 184;
his polilic'u! views those of the whigs,
ibid.; aeerpted contract as a source of
political rights, ibid.; on revolution,
x, J. C., on representation of
intrusts, ii. 292, 293.
CAIMTAL punishment, of old in the hands
of the family of the murdered person,
372; the tfni'l among1 the Hebrews, ibid,
Penalty for murder at Rome, 373;
among the ancient Germans, ibid,; in
India, 374; right to punish capitally,
374 ; expedience of so doing, 375.
CAKTHAGK, its government, $ i8x, H, 35-
4»; relation to Tyre and Phoenician